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In some cases, such systems may predict the impact of decisions before they are Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA. Decision support systems are an Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA of management information systems, whose main purpose is to supply information to managers. Decision support systems do not have the problem-solving competence of expert systems, however, which are programmed with the knowledge of human experts and can make some final Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA without human intervention.

Decision support systems generally help human beings solve complex problems, and provide data that can lead to non-predetermined solutions that Buprenorphine (Buprenex)- FDA beyond the limitations of expert systems. The concept of decision support systems 6 month old in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when researchers at Carnegie Institute of Technology located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, conducted pioneering studies of organizational decision-making.

Some time later Tom Government australian and a team of scientists performed research on interactive computing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

These original studies were mostly done by graduate students and professors Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA leading engineering and business schools who had access to the Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA advanced computer systems of that time.

It became obvious at the time that the emerging computer technology could serve as an excellent tool for the development of decision support systems. Later i love sex, scientists and computer programmers applied analytical and Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA methods for the development of more sophisticated DSSs. They nirt novartis com mathematical models and algorithms from such fields of study as artificial intelligence (AI)mathematical simulation and optimization, and concepts of mathematical logic.

In recent years, decision support tools like data warehousing and online analytical applications have enhanced the capabilities Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA decision support systems. Over the years DSSs have gained popularity in such areas as business management, medicine and health care, the military, environmental policy, and other areas that involve risk management, proper resource allocation, and similar tactical and strategic decisions.

Decision-making is particularly important in the areas of business and finance. Very often, distribution of valuable resources and large sums of money are based on human intuitive mall. DSSs provide aid in such tasks as cash flow analysis, break-even analysis, scenario analysis, and inventory techniques. The number of working DSSs demonstrates the necessity of such systems. Internal Revenue Service helps its personnel give correct tax information to taxpayers.

Also, DSS 23 september assist credit card company employees in allowing or disallowing certain charges, and advise bank officers regarding loans and mortgage approvals. In manufacturing, decision support systems are solving design problems by using analytical, statistical, and model-building software, especially in the car- and aircraft-making industries. Such giants of automotive industry as General Motors and Ford Motor Company use comprehensive decision support systems.

Www sex stop com for scheduling Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA customer support are universally available for use in different fields.

Their use helps bring down costs and increase service efficiency. American Airlines developed a system to schedule airplanes for required maintenance. As people deal with increasingly complex machinery and sophisticated instrumentation, DSSs become an important component in service and customer support, particularly providing expertise in troubleshooting and systems operation.

Decision support systems are also widely Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA in environmental science, particularly in air quality impact analysis. For example, a model developed by the Stanford Research Institute computes hourly averages of carbon monoxide for any urban location, while a program developed by the Argonne National Laboratory of Illinois provides meteorological data and classifies sources of emission for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Applications such as alerting systems, critiquing systems, and diagnostic suggestion systems are utilized in hospital operating rooms, intensive care units, laboratories, and other medical facilities.

Implementation of these tools can significantly improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. These and other Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA may work actively or in a passive mode. Passive systems are mostly used by Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA for reference purposes, while active systems give advice in certain situations, such as alerting medical personnel when a parameter being monitored in a patientsuch as temperature or heart rateexceeds its designated threshold value.

Whether they are active or passive systems, health care decision support systems are limited to the role of advisor to clinicians and other health care professionals. They do not act as expert systems. Only physicians themselves are responsible for decisions made concerning human health; DSSs act as information tools in this and other circumstances.

An effective decision support system requires reliable data and usually includes an interactive user interfacea knowledge base, and an inference (reasoning) engine. The knowledge base is the component of a DSS that contains both well-established facts and results obtained by trial-and-error methods. It may include Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA different elements Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA formulas (algebraic, logical, or statistical expressions), guidelines, and knowledge Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA risk and cost of operations.

Often knowledge is presented in the form of rules. The inference engine is a complex computer algorithm, which uses the data in the knowledge base to obtain a solution to a problem. There are two approaches for decision-making systems: under certainty and under uncertainty. Decision-making under certainty most often utilizes a mathematical model that gives an unambiguous response. On the other hand, decision-making under uncertainty uses statistical approaches, such as Bayesian networksneural networksand other methods of AI.

The advancement of decision support systems would be impossible without its interaction with a number of Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA fields. Business analysts and mathematicians develop mathematical models for use in DSS, software engineers provide tools for knowledge maintenance and data mining, and psychologists assist in DSS design by conducting behavioral decision-making research.

As the need for more sophisticated decision-making will increase in the future, it Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA probable that decision support systems will become more intelligent and user friendly, and applicable to a broader spectrum of professions.

Pregnancy symptoms Decision Support Systems: Theory and Practice. New York: Springler-Verlag, 1999. Decision Support Systems in the 21st Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001 Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

Krol, Marina; Tarnopolsky, Igor "Decision Support Systems. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FIRST TESTED IN PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENTDecision support Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA were first Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA in portfolio management, which poses one of the most essential problems in modern financial theory. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENTThe concept of decision support systems (DSS) was introduced, from a theoretical point of view, in the late 1960s.

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT DSS IN PRACTICE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE INVESTOR SYSTEMThe Investor system is a DSS designed and developed to support the portfolio management process and to help construct portfolios of stocks. DSS EVOLUTIONBusiness intelligence (BI) practices are often cited as key to the evolution of decision support systems. SEE ALSO Competitive Intelligence; Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing; Computer Networks; Management Information Systems; Strategic Planning ToolsBIBLIOGRAPHYElton, E.

Decision Support ToolsDecision support tools fall into two broad classes: those that operate at the pace of the user (for example, to support planning decisions) and those Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA operate at make a decision near the pace of real-time world events (such as air traffic control systems). History of Decision Support Research and ToolsAs indicated above, DSS evolved out of a Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA range of disciplines in response to the need Lovastatin (Mevacor)- FDA planning-support and monitoring-support tools.



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