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Less predictable rainfall and more disturbed habitats will increase the mortality of Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA laid eggs (45), but reproductive mode variation may help D. Frogs from all three ponds laid a small subset of their eggs aquatically even in shaded mesocosms, suggesting that aquatic oviposition also may occur at a low frequency in forest ponds, perhaps as a bet-hedging strategy (Fig.

This would provide a buffer against unpredictable environmental variation, protecting a subset of eggs from the possibility of desiccation. Additionally, frogs from ponds where only terrestrial oviposition had been observed laid most of their egg masses aquatically in unshaded mesocosms, suggesting that such plasticity may be widespread in this species (Fig. To the extent that the cues for aquatic oviposition accurately predict egg desiccation risk, this plasticity should improve D. Frogs in unshaded mesocosms laid smaller egg masses, which would allow them to spread eggs among more different microsites, but probably also increases desiccation by increasing the ratio of edge to central eggs in masses.

Terrestrial egg masses were, however, laid closer to the water in unshaded mesocosms, which would increase their chances of transitory flooding in nature. This behavior may be similar to that of amphibians that lay eggs adjacent to water in Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA anticipation of flooding (11).

The proximate cues that stimulate D. Clearly, cues are ascertained shortly before oviposition because frogs moved from their Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA pond to experimental mesocosms responded to their new environment within a single night.

If light level is the primary cue, then the frogs will likely respond appropriately to forest clearing, but not to changing rainfall patterns. However, if air temperature or humidity is the indicator of open habitats, then plasticity, as well as bet-hedging, might improve D. Afterward, aquatically laid eggs were hatching-competent, making the fates of missing eggs ambiguous.

Clutches were categorized based on their contact with water roche cobas 4800 air (air only, terrestrial; water and air, surface; water only, submerged). Terrestrial clutches were found on vegetation overhanging water and emergent vegetation. At Quarry Pond, aquatic egg clutches were primarily attached to Salvinia vegetation; this plant did not occur at Ocelot Pond and was in very low density at Bridge Pond.

Surface clutches included eggs in contact with water and exposed to air on surface or near-surface leaves. At each observation, we recorded the number of eggs that had Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA from desiccation (for terrestrial eggs), from hypoxia (for Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA eggs, characterized by developmental retardation before death), or missing because of predation (for all eggs).

We constructed twelve 1. Only one pair was used per mesocosm per night, thereby preventing competition for oviposition sites and allowing us to identify all egg masses laid by each pair. Because variation in weather conditions might affect oviposition choices, we always tested frogs from all three ponds on each night. We recorded the number of egg masses laid Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA the location of each mass (terrestrial, surface, or submerged).

Oviposition site was modeled by using a richards johnson logistic regression (MLR) in R version 2. Hughey for comments on the manuscript, J. Urbina for field assistance, and M. This Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA was conducted at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute under permits from the Panamanian National Environmental Authority, and was funded by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-0234439 and DDIG-0508811, Boston University, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Animal Behavior Society.

DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, no vertebrates have been described to plastically lay eggs both in water and on land. Materials and MethodsField Monitoring. Testing for Reproductive Mode Plasticity. Duellman WE, Trueb L erythematosus lupus Biology of Amphibians (Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore).

Lombardi J (1998) Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction (Kluwer, Boston).

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