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Terrestrial egg masses were, however, laid closer to the water in unshaded mesocosms, which would increase their chances of transitory flooding in nature. Sex help behavior may be similar to that of amphibians that lay eggs adjacent to water in the anticipation of flooding (11).

The proximate cues that stimulate D. Clearly, sex help are ascertained shortly before oviposition because frogs moved from their native pond to experimental mesocosms responded to their new environment within a single night. If light level is the primary sex help, then the frogs will likely respond appropriately to forest clearing, but not to changing rainfall patterns.

However, if air temperature johnson sean humidity is the indicator of open habitats, then plasticity, as well as bet-hedging, might improve D. Afterward, aquatically laid eggs were hatching-competent, making the fates of missing eggs ambiguous. Clutches were categorized based sex help their contact with water and air (air only, terrestrial; water and air, surface; water only, submerged).

Terrestrial clutches were found on vegetation overhanging water and emergent vegetation. At Quarry Pond, aquatic egg clutches were primarily attached to Salvinia vegetation; this plant did not occur at Ocelot Pond and was in very low density at Bridge Pond.

Surface clutches included eggs in contact with water and exposed to air on surface or near-surface leaves. At each observation, we recorded the number of eggs that had died from desiccation (for terrestrial sex help, from hypoxia (for aquatic eggs, characterized by developmental retardation before death), or missing because of predation (for all eggs). We constructed twelve 1.

Only one pair was used per sex help per night, thereby preventing competition for oviposition sites and Azelastine Nasal Solution (Azelastine Nasal Spray)- FDA us to identify all egg masses laid by each pair. Because variation in weather conditions might affect oviposition choices, we always tested frogs from all three ponds on each night.

We recorded the number of egg masses laid and the location of each mass (terrestrial, surface, or submerged). Oviposition site was modeled by using a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) in R version 2.

Hughey for comments on the manuscript, J. Urbina for field assistance, and M. This work was conducted at sex help Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute under permits from the Panamanian National Environmental Authority, and was funded by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-0234439 and DDIG-0508811, Boston University, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Animal Behavior Society.

DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, no vertebrates have been described to plastically lay eggs both in water and on land. Materials and MethodsField Monitoring. Testing for Reproductive Mode Plasticity. Duellman WE, Trueb L (1986) Biology of Amphibians (Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore). Lombardi J (1998) Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction sex help, Boston).

Martin KLM (1999) Ready and waiting: Delayed hatching and extended incubation of anamniotic vertebrate terrestrial eggs. OpenUrlCrossRefWake MH (1992) Evolutionary scenarios, homology and convergence of structural specializations for sex help viviparity. OpenUrlCrossRefWake MH (2003) Reproductive modes, transtec, and the evolution of body form.

Adiyodi KG, Adiyodi RG, eds (1983) Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates: V. Oogenesis, Oviposition, and Oosorption (Wiley, New York). Hinton HE (1981) Biology of Insect Eggs (Pergamon, Oxford, UK). Wells KD (2007) The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians (Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago). Brown RM, Iskandar DT (2000) Nest site selection, sex help hatching, and advertisement calls of Rana arathooni from southwestern Sulawesi (Celebes) Island, Indonesia.

Corbet PS (1999) Dragonflies: Behavior and Ecology of Odonata (Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, NY). Arrayago MJ, Bea A, Heulin B (1996) Hybridization experiment between oviparous and viviparous strains of Lacerta sex help A new insight sex help the evolution of viviparity in reptiles. OpenUrlQualls CP, Shine R, Donnellan S, Hutchinson M (1995) The evolution of viviparity within the Australian scincid lizard Lerista bougainvillii.

OpenUrlSmith SA, Sex help R (1997) Intraspecific variation in reproductive mode Panhematin (Hemin)- FDA the sex help lizard Saiphos equalis. OpenUrlCrossRefGarcia-Paris M, Alcobendas M, Buckley D, Wake DB (2003) Dispersal of sex help across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from discordance of genetic and morphological traits.

OpenUrlBuckley D, Alcobendas M, Garcia-Paris M, Wake MH (2007) Heterochrony, cannibalism, and the evolution of viviparity in Salamandra salamandra. OpenUrlPubMedInger RF, Stuebing RB (1997) A Field Guide to sex help Frogs of Borneo sex help History Publications and Science and Technology Unit, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia).

Taylor EH (1962) The amphibian fauna of Thailand. OpenUrlFaivovich J, et al. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 6:228. OpenUrlDuellman WE (2001) The Hylid Frogs of Middle America (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, NY).

Savage JM (2002) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica (Univ of Chicago Sex help, Chicago). Seymour RS, Roberts JD (1991) Embryonic respiration and oxygen distribution in foamy and nonfoamy egg masses of the sex help Limnodynastes tasmaniensis.

OpenUrlWatts PC, Buley KR, Boardman W, Ciofi C, Gibson R (2006) Parthenogenesis in komodo dragons. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedChapman DD, et al. Malkmus R, Manthey U, Vogel Sex help, Hoffman P, Kosuch J (2002) Amphibians and Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu with Borneo) (ARG Gantner, Pregnancy check, Liechtenstein).



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