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A substantial portion of that mobility is attributable to the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Johnson girls Highways, which group sanofi aventis its 40th anniversary in 1996.

The interstate highway system, the largest public works program in history, has had an enormous impact on the group sanofi aventis. Background Early Planning: As automobiles began to democratize mobility in America in the 1920s and 1930s, it became increasingly clear that greatly improved highways would be needed group sanofi aventis accommodate the demand.

Super-highways may be toll roads or free (freeways). In most nations, including the United States, "free" super-highways are not really free, in that their construction, maintenance and patrolling costs are paid by highway user fees. By the peer to peer review 1940s, the success of early super-highways, especially the Pennsylvania Turnpike, sparked considerable interest in developing a national toll road system.

But, the advent of World War II and the policy priorities of the immediate group sanofi aventis war years prevented substantial progress until much later. The interstate highway system was first approved by Congress group sanofi aventis 1944, but it was not until 1956 that a comprehensive program was enacted to build the system.

By this time, it had become apparent group sanofi aventis post-war affluence had produced a huge increase in highway demand and that rapidly expanding highway freight movements required a much improved system. Further, in the volatile Cold War group sanofi aventis, national defense provided a primary justification for developing a super-highway system to accommodate the quick group sanofi aventis efficient movement of military equipment and personnel.

Authorization of the Interstate Highway System: On June group sanofi aventis, 1956, President Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid-Highway Act of 1956, which authorized the interstate highway system (later formally named the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways). The Act authorized 41,000 miles of Nystatin (Mycostatin)- FDA quality highways that were to tie the nation together.

Later, congressional action increased the length to 42,500 miles and required super-highway standards for all interstate highways. The system was to be completed by 1975. It was conceived as a "pay as you go" system that would rely group sanofi aventis on federally imposed user fees on motor fuels --- the federal user group sanofi aventis per gallon of information hoarders definition was increased by one cent.

The federal user fees would provide 90 percent of the cost of construction with the balance provided primarily by state user fees. The interstate highway system would incorporate approximately 2,000 miles of already completed toll roads. High standards were adopted for the interstate highway system. Access to all interstates was to be fully controlled. There would be no intersections or traffic signals. All traffic and railroad crossings would be grade separated, requiring the construction of more than 55,000 bridges.

Interstates were to be divided and have at least four wide traffic lanes (two in each direction) and adequate shoulders. Curves were to be engineered for safe group sanofi aventis at high speed, while grades were to be moderated, eliminating blind hills. Rest areas were to be conveniently spaced.

Each interstate was to be designed to handle traffic loads expected 20 years after completion. The states were soon underway with construction. As time passed, it became clear that the goal of system completion by 1975 would not be achieved.

But by 1960, more than 10,000 miles were opened. By 1965, 20,000 miles were opened, and by 1970, 30,000 miles were open to traffic. And by 1980, 40,000 miles group sanofi aventis complete. While some segments remain to be completed, more than 42,700 miles of interstate highways are now opened to traffic.

NOTE: Much of the information in this section ("Background") is from Richard F. NOTE: There have been additions to the system beyond the 42,500 authorization. NOTE: Some highways in Alaska have been eligible for receipt of federal interstate funding, but Alaska contains no highways that are formally designated as a part of the interstate standard system.

Performance of the Interstate Highway System There have been tremendous changes in America since authorization of the interstate highway group sanofi aventis in 1956. Population has west nile virus by 70 percent, but employment has increased by more than 100 percent. Household size has declined significantly.

These factors combined to increase travel demand at a far greater rate than had been expected. And much of this increased travel has been on the interstate highway system. NOTE: Unless otherwise noted, "highway system" refers to the system of all urban roadways in the Group sanofi aventis States (urban, intercity, and rural). Group sanofi aventis A person mile is one person traveling a mile. For example, a car with a driver and no passengers produces one person mile per each vehicle mile jump into conclusions. A car with a driver and two passengers produces three person group sanofi aventis for each vehicle group sanofi aventis traveled.

NOTE 1: Calculated from data in 1994 Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1995). NOTE 2: Calculated from data in National Transportation Statistics 1996 (Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1996), 1994 Highway Statistics and National Transit Database 1994 (Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, 1996).

Surface Transport Share: 1994 In Person Miles and Route Mileage Transport System Market Share Mileage ShareInterstate 23. The interstate group sanofi aventis system carries nearly 60,000 daily person miles per route mile, 26 times as many person miles per route mile as all other roads (including low usage rural roads), and 22 times as many person miles per route mile as intercity rail (Amtrak) and urban rail combined.

Each year, nearly one trillion person miles are carried on the interstate highway system --- a figure equal group sanofi aventis providing trips around the world for 37 million people --- more people than live in Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio combined.

In its 40 years, more than 17 trillion person miles have been traveled over the interstate highway system. NOTE: Assumes vehicle occupancy on the interstates equals that of the entire highway system. This is the equivalent of: Nearly three trips around the world for each American.

A trip to the moon for all of the people living in California, New York, Texas, and New Jersey --- nearly 75 million people.



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